1.What Is Dandruff?

Dandruff is a condition of the scalp that causes flakes of dead skin to appear. It is usually restricted to the scalp, and involves itchy, flaking skin without visible inflammation. Dandruff is very common, and affects approximately 50% of the general adult population worldwide

2.How does dandruff occur?

Dandruff is believed to be related to a fungus known as Malassezia (formerly termed Pityrosporum) that lives on the scalp of most people. In some cases, overgrowth of the fungus results in the flakiness of the skin characteristic of dandruff.

3.Does having dandruff mean I have a fungal infection ?

The skin fungus Malassezia lives on everyone’s scalp—both people with and without dandruff. In some people, the Malassezia fungus breaks down the scalp skin barrier, making an oleic acid by-product as a result. This acid can irritate the skin and trigger an inflammatory response, causing normal scalp skin cells to clump and flake off as dead skin causing dandruff.

4.What are triggering factors for dandruff?

• Increased Oil Production
• Hormonal Changes
• Cold weather
• Stress
• Neurologic Disorders such as Parkinson's disease
• Recovery From Chronic conditions such as Stroke or Heart attack
• Suppression Of The Immune System
• Infrequent shampooing.

5. What are the features of dandruff?

If you suffer from dandruff, common features are flaky white to yellowish scales associated with Itchy scalp, Dry scalp,Inflammation with red scalp.
People with seborrheic dermatitis have irritated, oily skin, and they are more likely to have dandruff.
Seborrheic dermatitis affects many areas of the skin, including the backs of the ears, the breastbone, eyebrows, and the sides of the nose.
The skin will be red, greasy, and covered with flaky white or yellow scales.
In infants it can present as scaling over the scalp also called as Cradle cap.

6.General facts about dandruff

It is not contagious
More often than not, it’s not a sign of any systemic condition.
Controllable but not a curable condition since it’s not a disease.

7.What are the conditions that look like dandruff?

Sometimes, the flaking and itching that appears like dandruff is actually a medical condition, such as Scalp Psoriasis, Fungal infections of the scalp(Tinea capitis), or eczema. .

8.How can dandruff be treated?

The itching and flaking of dandruff can almost always be controlled. For mild dandruff, first try daily cleansing with a gentle shampoo to reduce oil and skin cell buildup. If that doesn't help, try a medicated shampoo or antidandruff shampoo.

• Pyrithione zinc shampoo
• Tar-based shampoos
• Shampoos containing salicylic acid
• Selenium sulfide shampoos
• Ketoconazole shampoos
Alternative medicine: Can be tried to reduce mild dandruff.
Tea tree oil
Apple cider vinegar
Baking soda

9. How to prevent dandruff?

Sometimes You can take steps to reduce your risk of developing dandruff or to control it:
Manage stress. Stress makes you susceptible to a number of conditions and diseases. Regular meditation & yoga helps to reduce stress.
Take a well balanced diet.
Take omega 3 fatty acids
Any zinc deficiency should be corrected
Shampoo often. If you tend to have an oily scalp, daily shampooing may help prevent dandruff. Gently massage your scalp to loosen flakes. Rinse thoroughly.
Limit hair styling products. Hair styling products can build up on your hair and scalp, making them oilier.
Regular exercise